Physiological Profile of Male Tae Kwon Do Athletes In Both Group I and Group II in Division I
The study was to investigate the variation in heart rate and oxygen consumption for Tae Kwon Do player during training performance. Ten male Tae Kwon Do players from Division I volunteered for the research. Experiment is performed and sample is collected for each player during training and competition period. The average age of the subject is 18.5±0.5 yr and the height is 171.7±1.8 cm ,and the weight is 62.8±0.7 kg The competition is of division I. During experiment, each subject runs on a treadmill machine at a gradient of 15% with an initial speed of 15 mph and 5 mph increase in speed every two minutes until complete exhaustion. Wireless heart recorder(POLAR) and Vmax29 gas analyzer are used to analyze heart rate and oxygen consumption. According to the statistical analysis on One-Way ANOVA Repeated Scheffe, the result s showed that: Tae Kwon Do player of HRmax was significantly different between group1 and group2 (195.3±2.8 vs. 185.5±2.1 bpm, p<.05). Tae Kwon Do player of the VO2max was significantly different between group1 and group2(53.1±2.0 vs. 45.1±0.5 ml/kg/min, p<.05). Tae Kwon Do player of the BMI was significantly different between group1 and group2 (21.3±0.5 vs. 27.5±0.3 kg/m, p<.05).
The results showed the group I Tae Kwon Do player having better HRmax ,VO2max and BMI than group II. The research result can be used as reference for coaches and players. Understanding Tae Kwon Do player’s physical condition is beneficial to coaches and players for training performance.
Since the inauguration of World Tae Kwon Do Federation in 1973, Tae Kwon Do has gradually changed into a modern Olympic sport characterized by its fast high kicks, spinning kicks, and effective punches. In general, Tae Kwon Do training involves basic patterns, forms, simulated sparring, free sparring, and self-defense. Basic techniques such as punching, kicking, and blocking are performed individually in stationary position or with body movements in formal stances (Toskovic ,Blessing,& Williford,2004). However, Taiwan won first-ever Olympic gold. Associated Press ATHENS, Aug. 26 ,2004. — Shih Hsin Chen claimed the first ever gold medal for Taiwan today when she won the women’s 49-kilogram taekwondo category, while countryman Mu Yen Chu added a second gold and Zhi-Shong Huang got the silver in the 2004 Olmpic. In the Taekwondo event of Sydney Olympic 2000, Zhi-Shong Huang and Sue-Ru Chi, representative contestants of this country, have honorably obtained two bronze medals. After being arranged to be the official event in the Olympic, the international competition on Taekwondo has become more and more intensive. Therefore, apart from keeping outstanding instructors and contestants, we must integrate the training and technology to elevate the training efficiency.
Past reference investigated that many scientists and instructors believed that long term trainings and contests can only be held with excellent aerobic exercise, physical fitness and physical function to maintain the best condition. Training with aerobic exercises can improve the highly trained physical function of contestants (Bell et al., 1997; Cooke et al., 1997).Bompa(1999)investigated boxing and martial arts , a quick and powerful start of an offensive skill prevents an opponent from using an effective action. The elastic, reactive component of muscle is of vital important for delivering quick action and powerful starts. The allover evaluation of urine analysis, sources of urinary proteins, exercise intensity, and responses of athletes to the training, is a valuable reference for evaluations of physical functions of athletes (Kan Lo, et al., 1993). Heller et al (1998) found that the maximum oxygen consumption volume was 57.0 ml/kg/min in Spanish international Tae-kwon-Do athletes and 53.8 ml/kg/min in Czech international athletes. The maximum oxygen uptake in Tae-kwon-Do black-belt athletes is 44.0 ml/kg/min (Drobni et al.,1995). The purpose of this study is to investigate the change of heart rate, oxygen consumption, and BMI between group1 and group2.
Methods and Procedures
1. Study Subjects
From Chinese Culture University (Group 1) , 10 male contestants of Taekwondo in each group were voluntarily enrolled into this study during their training. The basic characteristics of these subjects were listed in Table 3-1:
Table 2-1: The basic characteristics of study subjects (N=20)
|Height (cm)||Weight (kg)||Age (year)||Training duration (year)||level|
|Group 1||176.5 ±3.74||62.5 ±4.76||19.20 ±0.63||5.8 ±0.58||College Games|
|Group 2||172.5 ±1.74||60.5 ±4.76||18.20 ±0.63||3.8 ±0.78||College Games|
2. Study Time and Sites
- This study was started at September and ended at December, 2003.
- All laboratory tests were performed in the Physiology Laboratory of Chinese Culture University
3. Research Instruments and Tools
- One gas analyzer; Vmax29
- One computer of 586 and a laser printer
- Computer software, including MS-Excel, Word 10.0 and Power Point
- A statistical analysis software, SPSS 10.0
- Wireless recorder for heart rate (POLAR)
- A thermometer and a hygrometer
- A urine analyzer
- A height and weight meters
- A treadmill
4. Research Design
This study is to perform laboratory tests and collect the data for analysis of comparison.
Study subjects were asked to run on a treadmill (with a 15% of gradient, 15 mph of speed and a 5 mph increase for every 2 minutes) until exhausted. The variation of heart rates, oxygen consumption, urine pH, bilirubin, ketones, urinary protein and urobilinogen between calmness and 5, 30, 60 minutes after exercise were determined .
Procedures for Subjects
After having arrived the laboratory, study subjects were asked to sit down with calm for 15 minutes and then the following procedures were started (as shown in Figure 3-1):
- REST (Q0): The variation of heart rates, oxygen consumption, were determined.
- Exercise load test (TEST): To run on a treadmill (with a 15% of gradient, 15 mph of speed and a 5 mph increase for every 2 minutes) until exhausted.
- At 5 minutes post exercise (p5): The variation of heart rates and oxygen consumption were determined.
- At 30 minutes post exercise (p30): The variation of heart rates and oxygen consumption were determined.
- At 60 minutes post exercise (p60): The variation of heart rates and oxygen consumption were determined.
Note: Water consumption before and after exercise was limited within 500ml and study subjects were in good conditions during 48 hours before exercise.
Methods and Procedures
This is a designed study by arranging a running on a running machine (with a 15% of gradient, 15 mph of speed and a 5 mph increase for every 2 minutes) until exhausted. The variation of heart rates, oxygen consumption and BMI after exercise were then determined .
Preparation before experiments
- Subjects were asked to fill in the informed consent to understand experimental procedures and possible consequences were explained. Furthermore, physical conditions of study subjects were checked.
- Any occurrence of bad mood or physical condition in study subjects, they should be rearranged without performing the experiments.
- The instruments for experiments should be warmed up at 30 minutes before the experiments and experimental materialsshould be prepared. Study subjects were arranged to rum on a running machine (with a 15% of gradient, 15 mph of speedand a 5 mph increase for every 2 minutes) until exhausted. The variations of heart rates, oxygen consumption and BMI(body mass index) were then determined.
- During executing the experiments, researcherssimultaneously took down the data on the recorder. At the end of first set of experiments, study subjects were informed with the time for the next experiment.
- Data Analysis
Data analysis was performed by Microsoft Excel 8.0, SPSS/PC 10.0, and SPSS for Windows.
- All data were presented as standard deviation and mean.
- ONE-WAY ANOVA and repeated scheffe process were used to analyze if any significant variations of heart rates, oxygen consumption and BMI. P=0.05 was referred as statistically significant in this study.
1) Tae Kwon Do player of HRmax was significant between group1 and group2 (195.3±2.8 vs. 185.5±2.1 bpm, p<.05) (Table I).
Guidetti, Musulin, & Baldari (2002) reported eight elite amateur boxers’ HRmax at 195±7 bpm. The measurement of maximum heart rate is important because it is often used to determine the intensity of cardiovascular training zone. In reality, a larger size athlete would tend to have a lower HRmax value than the predicted value (McArdle et al., 2001). Melhim (2001) et al. found that Tae-kwon-Do exercise could improve children’s cardio respiratory function, improve practitioners’ attack and defense skills and enhance self-health adjusting ability. Arja & Uustitalo(2001) reported overstraining syndrome as a serious problem marked by decreased performance, increased fatigue, persistent muscle soreness, mood disturbances, and feeling ‘burn out’ or stale.
2) Tae Kwon Do player of the VO2max was significant between group1 and group2 (53.1±2.0 vs. 45.1±0.5 ml/kg/min, p<.05).
Heller et al (1998) found that the maximum oxygen consumption volume was 57.0 ml/kg/min in Spanish international Tae-kwon-Do athletes and 53.8 ml/kg/min in Czech international athletes. The maximum oxygen uptake in Tae-kwon-Do black-belt athletes is 44.0 ml/kg/min (Drobni et al.,1995). Bompa(1999)investigated boxing and martial arts , a quick and powerful start of an offensive skill prevents an opponent from using an effective action. The elastic, reactive component of muscle is of vital important for delivering quick action and powerful starts.
Drobnic (1995)discussed recreational Tae-kwon-do athletes had a mean VO 2max about 44.0 ml/kg/min; however, the VO 2max values for elite athletes would be significantly higher than the athletes of recreational level. The National Taekwando Team of China had an average of VO 2max of 57.57 ml/kg/min. The mean VO 2max value of the Korean National Team, the perennial dominant power of this event, was about 59.56 ml/kg/min (Hong, 1997). Heller et al(1998) reported the average VO 2max of the black-belt athletes on the Spanish national squad was 57.0 ml/kg/min, and as for the Czech Republic Team, the value was 53.8 ml/kg/min. Based on the results of previous research, it was suggested that male and female contestants with VO 2max of 65 ml/kg/min and 55 ml/kg/min respectively, had a better chance to win the Olympic medals. Intensive aerobic training could improve the physiological functions of highly trained sport contestants ( Cooke et al., 1997).Therefore, w hen athletes drive themselves beyond their physiological limits, they risk fatigue(Bompa,1999).
Zabukovec & Tiidus(1995) investigated t he physiological characteristics of kickboxers .Professional male middleweight (73-77 kg) and welterweight (63-67 kg) kickboxers were determined to have relatively higher aerobic capacities (VO 2max , 54-69 ml/kg/min) than previously reported for many other power or combat athletes. However, in a competitive Olympic (non-professional) boxing match, boxers must fight for a total of 11 minutes. The fight is structured for three 3-minute rounds with a 1-min rest interval between each round. An athlete must have a high anaerobic threshold level and aerobic power level to meet the demand of this sport.
3) Tae Kwon Do player of the BMI was significant between group1 and group2
(21.3±0.5 vs. 27.5±0.3 kg/m, p<.05).
For weight control, not only covering the grading of various levels of athlete’s body weight but also balancing physical ability and health. Sport training is important even for excellent athletes. Only when their cardio respiratory function, energy expenditure and blood lactate system are well controlled can they show their potential and maintain high performance. This is very important to both coaches and athletes (Hiroyuki et al., 1999). Peaking, or the ability of an athlete to perform at peak performance during the main competition or games of the year, is also related to strength training.
Table I: The Impact both group1 and group2 TKD athlete
|HRmax (bpm)||VO2max (ml/kg/min)||BMI(kg/m)||Time (min)|
|Group 2||185.5±2.1 *||45.1±0.5||27.5±0.3 *||10.6±0.1|
Figure1: The Impact both group1 and group2 TKD athlete
Tae Kwon Do player of HRmax was significant between group1 and group2 (195.3±2.8 vs. 185.5±2.1 bpm, p<.05).
Tae Kwon Do player of the VO2max was significant between group1 and group2(53.1±2.0 vs. 45.1±0.5 ml/kg/min, p<.05).
Tae Kwon Do player of the BMI was significant between group1 and group2 (21.3±0.5 vs. 27.5±0.3 kg/m, p<.05).
The result showed the group I player get better HRmax ,VO2max and BMI than group II. The research result can be used as reference for coaches and players. Understanding Tae Kwon Do player’s physical condition is beneficial to coaches and players for training performance.
Various predetermined compositions of basic patterns are known as forms. Free sparring, an additional element of Tae Kwon Do training is an execution of offensive and defensive techniques against an opponent and is frequently associated with competition related injuries (Toskovic ,Blessing,& Williford,2004). Therefore, to monitor the physiological characteristic between group1 and group2. It’s benefit for the player and coach to manage the peak performance and avoid the over training. To recover quickly and keep a steady state is important for the coach and player.
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