2008 Olympic Sport Tourism
2008 Olympic international sport even bring big business and economic in china and successful international sport mega-events will bring much positive outcomes and result in a quantum jump in the amount and the rate of change in a host community such as image enhancement, unity within the host community, and more opportunities to enjoy sport matches and attract foreign travelers (Bramwell, 1997; Kim, Petrick, 2005).
For large sport events like FIFA World cup, interest in the event and perceived constraints should derive from the level of fan motives, travel motivations, and the potential attendee’s background (Kim, Chalip, 2004).
International sport events have become a big business and destination marketing with increasingly significant visitation to improve destination of position marketing and development (Getz, 1997; Hall,1992; van den Berg, Braun, & Otgaar, 2000;Light, 1996; Ritchie, 1984;Brown, Chalip, Jago, & Mules, 2002; Roche, 1994;Bramwell, 1997; Chacko & Shaffer, 1993).
Beyond the economic impact, events often bring new infrastructure and facilities as well as a variety of social and cultural events that influence pre-existing patterns of activity and lifestyle in the host and its neighboring communities (Kim, & Petrick, 2005).
Economic, social culture and sport events
International tourism will attract and attention to Olympic event an interest in travel to attend through media (Ritchie & Smith, 1991; Whitelegg, 2000; Kim, Chalip,2004). Push and pull factors are thought to work together to determine travel intentions and destination choice (Kim, Chalip, 2004). Travel motivation has differentiated push factors (attractions) from pull factors (motives, needs and interests of traveler) (Kozak, 2002; Uysal & Hagan, 1993; Zhang & Lam, 1999; Kim, & Chalip, 2004).
It will spend large money in a international sport events, and destination of resident still have higher support and desire to have become an increasingly significant destination of social, economic and city development. In contrast, huge sport events have negative affection in host country from economic, social culture and environment (Barker, Page, & Myer, 2002; Kim & Petrick, 2005).
The other impacts of negative factors such as increases in: security concerns, alcoholism, smuggling, prostitution, heightened tension, loss of authenticity, commoditization, additional policing costs and congestion (Deccio & Baloglu, 2002). Even a strong attraction to an event may not be sufficient to generate travel to attend, particularly when long haul international travel is required (Kim, Chalip,2004).
However, Kim, Chalip (2004) discussed clearly suggests that pull factors, push factors, and constraints should each affect travel behavior. The higher a fan’s motivation with reference to an event (or the event’s sport), the more attractive the event should seem. That would certainly be consistent with findings from the fan motivation literature (Wann et al., 2001).
Therefore, Kim & Chalip (2004) found push factors include fan motivates (eg: aesthetics, vicarious achievement, interest in players and supporting national team) and travel motives (escape, learn about host country, and socialization) and travel motives (escape, learn about host country, and socialization).Constraints and perceptions of constraint play a vital role in the leisure choices that individuals and families make (Jackson & Scott, 1999).
2008 Olympic events on the marketing depend on the media, sponsorship and participator. For increasing significant component of financial and tourism outcomes, destination marketers share with marketers of mega-events the need to stimulate international visitation (Barker, Page, & Meyer, 2002; Chalip, Green, & Vander Velden, 1998). Thus, the destination development that an event engenders is largely driven by the attendance it is expected to generate (Faulkner et al., 2000). Thus, it’s important factors for tourism and fan to attract and attendance sport even to enjoy in the international sport even.
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